sign in

Gadri 2

The three basic gadri – lo, le and la – can be expanded with three more:

loi gadri: generic, mass of individuals.

lei gadri: specific and descriptive, mass of individuals.

lai gadri: mass of named individuals.

These are the same as the first three articles in all aspects except for one: they wrap the sumti into masses. Masses are used to abstract multiple individuals into single entities for ease of expression. For example, a football team can be described as a mass of its members, or an animal as a mass of cells.

Consider the following example:

mivysle x1 is a biological cell of organism x2.

remna x1 is a human.

Sentence Possible translation
loi mivysle cu remna Masses of cells are humans.

Again, none of the cells are humans. Indeed, the cells have very few human traits, but the cells considered as a whole make up a human. This example also shows that the selbri following loi must be satisfied by the members of the mass, but not by the mass itself: a human isn't a cell either.

It needs to be noted that regular sumti built using lo are usually sufficient even when a selbri is meant to apply collectively. Constructing masses is mainly necessary when talking about multiple groups of individuals.

sruri x1 flanks/encircles/encloses x2 in line/plane/directions x3.

Sentence Possible translation
lo prenu cu sruri lo zdani People surround the house.

This Lojban sentence shares the obvious meaning of the English one, namely that people are arranged around the house, not necessarily that individual people are stretched around it. But what if we want to explicitly say that people surround the house from head to toe? That is possible as well, but will only be covered in a future lesson.

Let's see a few more examples:

Sentence Possible translation
loi ctuca cu na prenu A mass of instructors is not a person.
ma cmene lei fanva What is the name of the mass of translators?
lai .djan. djuno fi lo bangu The Johns know about languages.

Lastly, there are the (only two) generalizing gadri:

lo'e gadri: veridical convert selbri to sumti. Sumti refers to the archetype of lo SELBRI.

le'e gadri: descriptive convert selbri to sumti. Sumti refers to the described/perceived archetype of le SELBRI.

Of which there is no la-equivalent.

So, what is actually meant by the archetype? For lo'e mlatu, it is an ideal, imagined cat, which has all the properties which best exemplifies cats. It would be wrong to say that this includes being white, since a big systematic subgroup of the members of the set of cats do not have white color. Likewise, the typical person does not live in Asia even though a lot of them do. However, if sufficiently many persons have a trait, for instance being able to speak, we can say:

kakne = x1 is capable of doing/being x2 under circumstance x3.

Sentence Possible translation
lo'e remna cu kakne lo nu tavla The typical human being can speak.

What about le'e? Well, it is the ideal object as perceived or described by the speaker. This need not be factually correct, and is often translated as the stereotype, even though the English expression has some unpleasant negative connotations, which the Lojban one does not. In fact, everyone has a stereotypical archetypical image of any category. In other words, lo'e mlatu is the archetype which best exemplifies all lo mlatu, while the archetype le'e mlatu best exemplifies all le mlatu.

Sentence Possible translation
le'e remna cu gleki The stereotypical human is happy.


The eleven gadri can be seen in the diagram below.

Generic Masses Generalizing
veridical lo loi lo'e
descriptive le lei le'e
name la lai n/a


As usual, before proceeding to the next lesson, get some practice with interactive exercises – look for the "Practice" button nearby!

Beware that exercises loop indefinitely, so feel free to stop once you feel you've had enough. And be sure to revisit exercises on different days, to benefit from the spacing effect.

Lesson plan

  • Lesson
    • loi, lei, lai
    • lo'e, le'e
  • New exercises
    • Identify the glosses of "loi", "lei", "lai", "lo'e" and "le'e" (OK)


dunda x1 [donor] gives/donates gift/present x2 to recipient/beneficiary x3 [without payment/exchange]

pelxu x1 is yellow/golden [color adjective]

zdani x1 is a nest/house/lair/den/[home] of/for x2

tavla x1 talks/speaks to x2 about subject x3 in language x4

pendo x1 is/acts as a friend of/to x2 (experiencer); x2 befriends x1

prenu x1 is a person/people (noun) [not necessarily human]; x1 displays personality/a persona

mlatu x1 is a cat/[puss/pussy/kitten] [feline animal] of species/breed x2; (adjective:) x1 is feline

ctuca x1 teaches audience x2 ideas/methods/lore x3 (du'u) about subject(s) x4 by method x5 (event)

nelci x1 is fond of/likes/has a taste for x2 (object/state)

gerku x1 is a dog/canine/[bitch] of species/breed x2

melbi x1 is beautiful/pleasant to x2 in aspect x3 (ka) by aesthetic standard x4

sutra x1 is fast/swift/quick/hastes/rapid at doing/being/bringing about x2 (event/state)

lojbo x1 reflects [Loglandic]/Lojbanic language/culture/nationality/community in aspect x2

ciska x1 inscribes/writes x2 on display/storage medium x3 with writing implement x4; x1 is a scribe

djuno x1 knows fact(s) x2 (du'u) about subject x3 by epistemology x4

nupre x1 (agent) promises/commits/assures/threatens x2 (event/state) to x3 [beneficiary/victim]

cusku x1 (agent) expresses/says x2 (sedu'u/text/lu'e concept) for audience x3 via expressive medium x4

gleki x1 is happy/gay/merry/glad/gleeful about x2 (event/state)

citka x1 eats/ingests/consumes (transitive verb) x2

plise x1 is an apple [fruit] of species/strain x2

vecnu x1 [seller] sells/vends x2 [goods/service/commodity] to buyer x3 for amount/cost/expense x4

skami x1 is a computer for purpose x2

pilno x1 uses/employs x2 [tool, apparatus, machine, agent, acting entity, material] for purpose x3

cmene x1 (quoted word(s)) is a/the name/title/tag of x2 to/used-by namer/name-user x3 (person)

bangu x1 is a/the language/dialect used by x2 to express/communicate x3 (si'o/du'u, not quote)

fanva x1 translates text/utterance x2 to language x3 from language x4 with translation result x5

mukti x1 (action/event/state) motivates/is a motive/incentive for action/event x2, per volition of x3

gasnu x1 [person/agent] is an agentive cause of event x2; x1 does/brings about x2

lerci x1 (event) is late by standard x2

kakne x1 is able to do/be/capable of doing/being x2 (event/state) under conditions x3 (event/state)


mi pro-sumti: me/we the speaker(s)/author(s); identified by self-vocative

do pro-sumti: you listener(s); identified by vocative

ti pro-sumti: this here; immediate demonstrative it; indicated thing/place near speaker

ta pro-sumti: that there; nearby demonstrative it; indicated thing/place near listener

zo'e pro-sumti: an elliptical/unspecified value; has some value which makes bridi true

lo veridical descriptor: the one(s) that really is(are) ...

ku elidable terminator: end description, modal, or negator sumti; often elidable

fa sumti place tag: tag 1st sumti place

fe sumti place tag: tag 2nd sumti place

fi sumti place tag: tag 3rd sumti place

fo sumti place tag: tag 4th sumti place

fu sumti place tag: tag 5th sumti place

se 2nd conversion; switch 1st/2nd places

te 3rd conversion; switch 1st/3rd places

ve 4th conversion; switch 1st/4th places

xe 5th conversion; switch 1st/5th places

xu discursive: true-false question

ma pro-sumti: sumti question (what/who/how/why/etc.); appropriately fill in sumti blank

mo pro-bridi: bridi/selbri/brivla question

na bridi contradictory negator; scope is an entire bridi; logically negates in some cmavo compounds

go'i pro-bridi: preceding bridi; in answer to a yes/no question, repeats the claim, meaning yes

su'u abstractor: generalized abstractor (how); x1 is [bridi] as a non-specific abstraction of type x2

nu abstractor: generalized event abstractor; x1 is state/process/achievement/activity of [bridi]

du'u abstractor: predication/bridi abstractor; x1 is predication [bridi] expressed in sentence x2

sedu'u compound abstractor: sentence/equation abstract; x1 is text expressing [bridi] which is x2

kei elidable terminator: end abstraction bridi (often elidable)

vau elidable: end of sumti in simple bridi; in compound bridi, separates common trailing sumti

cu elidable marker: separates selbri from preceding sumti, allows preceding terminator elision

poi restrictive relative clause; attaches subordinate bridi with identifying information to a sumti

noi non-restrictive relative clause; attaches subordinate bridi with incidental information

ke'a pro-sumti: relativized sumti (object of relative clause)

ku'o elidable terminator: end NOI relative clause; always elidable, but preferred in complex clauses

be sumti link to attach sumti (default x2) to a selbri; used in descriptions

bei separates multiple linked sumti within a selbri; used in descriptions

be'o elidable terminator: end linked sumti in specified description

pi'o pilno modal, 1st place used by ...

mu'i mukti modal, 1st place because of motive ...

gau gasnu modal, 1st place agent/actor case tag with active agent ...

pu time tense relation/direction: did [selbri]; before/prior to [sumti]; default past tense

ca time tense relation/direction: is [selbri]; during/simultaneous with [sumti]; present tense

ba time tense relation/direction: will [selbri]; after [sumti]; default future tense

zo quote next word only; quotes a single Lojban word (not a cmavo compound or tanru)

lu start grammatical quotation; quoted text should be grammatical on its own

li'u elidable terminator: end grammatical quotation; seldom elidable except at end of text

ne non-restrictive relative phrase marker: which incidentally is associated with ...

pe restrictive relative phrase marker: which is associated with ...; loosest associative/possessive

po restrictive relative phrase marker: which is specific to ...; normal possessive physical/legal

po'e restrictive relative phrase marker: which belongs to ... ; inalienable possession

.a logical connective: sumti afterthought or

.e logical connective: sumti afterthought and

.o logical connective: sumti afterthought biconditional/iff/if-and-only-if

.u logical connective: sumti afterthought whether-or-not

na'e contrary scalar negator: other than ...; not ...; a scale or set is implied

to'e polar opposite scalar negator

no'e midpoint scalar negator: neutral point between je'a and to'e; "not really"

tu'a extracts a concrete sumti from an unspecified abstraction; equivalent to le nu/su'u [sumti] co'e

jai convert tense/modal (tagged) place to 1st place; 1st place moves to extra FA place (fai)

la name descriptor: the one(s) called ... ; takes name or selbri description

le non-veridical descriptor: the one(s) described as ...

no digit/number: 0 (digit) [zero]

pa digit/number: 1 (digit) [one]

re digit/number: 2 (digit) [two]

ci digit/number: 3 (digit) [three]

vo digit/number: 4 (digit) [four]

mu digit/number: 5 (digit) [five]

xa digit/number: 6 (digit) [six]

ze digit/number: 7 (digit) [seven]

bi digit/number: 8 (digit) [eight]

so digit/number: 9 (digit) [nine]

pi digit/number: radix (number base) point; default decimal

ro digit/number: each, all

so'a digit/number: almost all (digit/number)

so'e digit/number: most

so'i digit/number: many

so'o digit/number: several

so'u digit/number: few

pu'o interval event contour: in anticipation of ...; until ... ; inchoative ----| |

ca'o interval event contour: during ...; continuative |-----|

ba'o interval event contour: in the aftermath of ...; since ...; perfective | |----

co'a interval event contour: at the starting point of ...; initiative >|< |

co'u interval event contour: at the ending point of ... even if not done; cessative | >< |

loi veridical descriptor: the mass of individual(s) that is(are) ...

lei non-veridical descriptor: the mass of individual(s) described as ...

lai name descriptor: the mass of individual(s) named ... ; takes name or selbri description

lo'e veridical descriptor: the typical one(s) who really is(are) ...

le'e non-veridical descriptor: the stereotype of those described as ...


Any feedback about this lesson would be deeply appreciated.

If you believe you discovered an error, or if you have any criticism or suggestions, please consider opening an issue in our GitHub repository.

If you are interested, you may also edit this lesson directly. For more details, please refer to Improving existing lessons.